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Atmospheric plasma spray - APS

 

The conventional plasma spray process is commonly referred to as air or atmospheric plasma spray (APS). Plasma temperatures in the powder heating region range from about 6000 to 15,000 °C (11,000 to 27,000 °F), significantly above the melting point of any known material. To generate the plasma, an inert gas—typically argon or an argon-hydrogen mixture—is superheated by a dc arc. Powder feedstock is introduced via an inert carrier gas and is radially accelerated toward the substrate by the plasma jet. Provisions for cooling or regulating the spray rate may be required to maintain substrate temperatures in the 95 to 205 °C range.

Ceramic coatings adherence onto metallic substrates ranges from 15 to 25 MPa. However, plasma-sprayed bonding alloys (e.g. NiAl or NiCrAl) or metals (Mo) can achieve 70 MPa or even higher values. Porosity is in the range 1-7%, but it is possible to get higher values intentionally. Coatings thicknesses can achieve 1500 µm.

 

 

Ceramic coatings adherence onto metallic substrates ranges from 15 to 25 MPa. However, plasma-sprayed bonding alloys (e.g. NiAl or NiCrAl) or metals (Mo) can achieve 70 MPa or even higher values. Porosity is in the range 1-7%, but it is possible to get higher values intentionally. Coatings thicknesses can achieve 1500 µm.

 

Applications:

  • Aeronautical and space industries:

- Adhesive wear coatings of Al2O3 or Cr2O3.

- The duplex thermal barrier is usually ZrO2 stabilized with 8 wt% Y2O3.

- Abradable coatings: composite of Al–Si + polyester.

 

  • Automobile industry:

- High scuffing and wear resistance of cylinder bores: Composite of steel with iron oxides.

- Weight reduction and lifetime prolongation. Steel coatings for the brake disc.

- Brick–clay extruders. WC–17Co coatings.

 

  • Chemical industry:

- Photodegradation of acetaldehyde using TiO2 + 10 wt.% Fe3O4.

  • Medical industry:

- Hydroxyapatite coatings for hip prosthesis.